Table 6.

Reported normalized dimensions of cardiac pathways in normal individuals

ModalityMethodReferenceSubjectsTime in CycleBSA MethodBSA RangeArea/BSA, cm2/m2Diameter/BSA0.5, cm/m
Mitral valve
    AutopsyCIRC64CBSAD0.2–1.83.42.0
    AutopsyCIRC83ANS1.2–2.84.32.3
    2DEchoIN-INPersonalCMaxBSAH0.2–2.03.32.2
    2DEchoArea53AMaxNSNS3.82.2
    2DEchoArea57AMaxNSNS4.22.3
    2DEchoArea59CMaxBSAD0.2–0.94.72.4
    2DEchoIN-IN34CMaxNS0.2–1.43.32.0
Tricuspid valve
    AutopsyCIRC64CBSAD0.2–1.84.52.4
    AutopsyCIRC83ANS1.2–2.85.82.7
    2DEchoIN-INPersonalCMaxBSAH0.2–2.04.02.2
    2DEchoIN-IN34CMaxNS0.2–1.43.82.2
    2DEchoArea76AMaxNSNS6.12.8
Aortic annulus
    AutopsyCIRC64CBSAD0.2–1.81.61.4
    AutopsyCIRC83ANS1.2–2.82.41.7
    AngioIN-IN68CMax, MinNS0.2–1.52.91.9
    2DEchoIN-INPersonalCMaxBSAH0.2–2.01.81.5
    2DEchoIN-IN26CNSNS0.2–1.62.41.7
    2DEchoArea57AMaxNSNS1.81.5
    DopplerCONT70ANS1.1–2.01.81.5
    DopplerCONT23CNS0.1–2.11.31.3
Pulmonary annulus
    AutopsyCIRC64CBSAD0.2–1.81.91.6
    AutopsyCIRC83ANS1.2–2.82.61.8
    AngioIN-IN68CMax,MinNS0.2–1.52.81.9
    AngioIN-IN35CMax,MinNSNS2.81.9
    2DEchoIN-INPersonalCMaxBSAH0.2–2.02.31.7
    2DEchoIN-IN26CNSNS0.2–1.62.81.9
    DopplerCONT70ANS1.1–2.02.01.6
    DopplerCONT23CNS0.1–2.11.71.5
Main pulmonary artery
    AngioIN-IN68CMax,MinNS0.2–1.53.52.1
    AngioIN-IN35CMax,MinNSNS3.52.1
    2DEchoIN-INPersonalCMaxBSAH0.2–2.02.31.7
    2DEchoOUT-IN73CES,EDBSAD0.2–2.02.21.5
Right pulmonary artery
    AngioIN-IN68CMax,MinNS0.2–1.51.81.5
    AngioIN-IN35CMax,MinNSNS1.81.5
    2DEchoIN-INPersonalCMaxBSAH0.2–2.00.91.1
    2DEchoOUT-IN37CES,EDBSAD0.2–1.81.61.4
    2DEchoOUT-IN73CES,EDBSAD0.2–2.01.11.2
Left pulmonary artery
    AngioIN-IN68CMax,MinNS0.2–1.51.61.4
    AngioIN-IN35CMax,MinNSNS1.41.3
    2DEchoIN-INPersonalCMaxBSAH0.2–2.00.91.0
Sum of right and left pulmonary artery
    AngioIN-IN68CMax,MinNS0.2–1.53.42.9
    AngioIN-IN35CMax,MinNSNS3.22.8
    AngioIN-IN50CMeanNS0.3–1.63.32.9
    2DEchoIN-INPersonalCMaxBSAH0.2–2.01.92.1
  • 2DEcho, 2-dimensional echocardiography; A, Adults; Angio, angiography; BSAD, Dubois and Dubois formula for body surface area; BSAH, Haycock formula for body surface area; C, Children; CIRC, circumference; CONT, Continuity equation; IN-IN, inner edge to inner edge measurement; Max, maximum; Min, minimum; OUT-IN, outer (leading) edge to inner edge measurement; Time in cycle, time during the cardiac cycle at which the measurement was taken (not applicable for autopsy- or Doppler-derived values); NS, not stated.