Table 1.

Studies of ci-miRNAs in response to acute exercise, exercise training, or fitness in humans

ReferenceSubjectsStimulusSamplesCi-miRNA ResponsesCi-miRNAs Investigated
Baggish et al. 2011 (7)Male student athletes (n = 10) age 19.1 ± 0.6 yr1) Exhaustive incremental cycling exercise test; 2) 90 days rowing training 1–3 h/dayPlasma, immed. and 1 h after an exercise test, both before (baseline) and after trainingBaseline immed. after exercise: 146a, 222, 21, 221 ↑A priori, 12 ci-miRNAs
At rest after training vs. baseline: 146a, 222, 21, 221, 20a ↑
After training immed after exercise: 146a, 222 ↑
Aoi et al. 2013 (4)Healthy, untrained men (n = 10) age 21.5 ± 4.5 yr1) Acute: cycling at 70% V̇o2max for 60 min. 2) Training: cycling at 70% V̇o2max, 30 min, 3 days/wk for 4 wkSerum, 1) immed, 3 h, and 24 h after acute exercise; 2) at rest after trainingImmed. after exercise 486 ↓A priori, 7 muscle-enriched ci-miRNAs
48 h after training: 486 ↓
Banzet et al. 2013 (9)Healthy, recreationally active men (n = 9) age 27–36 yr1) Downhill backward walking 2) uphill walking 30 min, 1 m/s, with loaded backpack (12% body weight)Plasma, immed, 3 h, 6 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h after each exercise sessionImmed after uphill ex: 181b, 214 ↑A priori, 8 muscle specific/related ci-miRNAs
2 h after downhill ex: 1 ↑
6 h after downhill ex: 1, 133a, 133b, 208b ↑
Bye et al. 2013 (14)Healthy men (n = 38) and women (n = 38) age 45.5 ± 3.3 yrNone; subjects categorized in high (145.2 ± 20.7 ml/kg0.75/min) or low (101.1 ± 18.0 ml/kg0.75/min) V̇o2max categoriesSerum, at restLow V̇o2max vs. high V̇o2max 210, 222 ↑Screening of 720 ci-miRNAs (50 detected); 8 selected for further validation
Low V̇o2max vs. high V̇o2max (men only): 21 ↑
Sawada et al. 2013 (92)Healthy, recreationally active men (n = 12) age 29.9 ± 1.2 yrBench press and bilateral leg press, 5 sets of 10 reps at 70% 1 RMSerum, immed, 1 h, 1 day, and 3 days after exercise1 Day after: 149* ↑Global screening of all miRNAs (3 selected for further validation) plus 8 ci-miRs selected a priori
3 Days after: 149* ↑ 146a, 221 ↓
Tonevitsky et al. 2013 (100)Highly trained, male, national-level ski athletes (n = 8) age 21.7 ± 2.6 yrTreadmill running at 80% V̇o2peak for 30 minWhole blood, immed, 30 min, and 60 min after exerciseMicroarray results not validatedScreening of 200 ci-miRNAs
Backes et al. 2014 (6)Elite endurance athletes (6 men, 6 women) age 24 ± 5 yr and age/sex matched moderately active controlsExhaustive stepwise cycling exercise testWhole blood, 30 min after exerciseNo significant differences using qRT-PCRScreening of 1,205 ci-miRNAs (154 detected in all samples); 3 selected for further validation
Baggish et al. 2014 (8)Healthy, white, male Boston Marathon runners (n = 21) age 51.8 ± 1.4 yrMarathonPlasma, immed and 24 h after exerciseImmed after: 134, 126, 1, 133a, 499–5p, 208a, 146a ↑A priori, 7 ci-miRNAs
Gomes et al. 2014 (39)Men, recreational runners (n = 5) age 31.6 ± 4.4Half marathonPlasma, immed after exercise1, 133a, 206 ↑A priori, 3 muscle specific ci-miRNAs
Liu et al. 2014 (62)Patients with IGT/IFG (men = 82, women = 75) age 47.9 ± 7.8. Patients with DM (men = 78, women = 82) age 50.2 ± 6.76-Mo exercise “training” and diet control treatmentSerum, at rest after exercise “training”IGT/IFG and DM: 126 ↑A priori, 1 ci-miRNA
Mooren et al. 2014 (75)Moderately endurance-trained men (n = 14) age 42.8 ± 6.0 yrMarathonPlasma, immed and 24 h afterImmed after: 1, 133a, 206, 208b, 499 ↑A priori, 7 skeletal/heart muscle-related ci-miRNAs
24 h after, 1, 133a, 206 ↑
Nielsen et al. 2014 (77)Healthy, trained men (n = 13) (for acute exercise and n = 7 for training) age 28 ± 8 and 28 ± 5 yr1) Acute exercise: 60 min cycling at 65% Pmax 2) training: cycling 5 times/wk for 12 wkPlasma, immed, 1 and 3 h after acute exercise. 3–5 days after trainingImmed after exercise: 106a, 221, 30b, 151–5p, let-7i, 146a, 652, 151–3p ↓Global screening of 752 miRNAs. Validation of 188 ci-miRNAs
1 h after exercise: 338–3p, 330–3p, 223, 139–5p, 143, 145, 424 ↑
3 h after exercise: 1, 424, 133a, 133b ↑
After training: 342–3p, let-7d, 766, 25, 148a, 185, 21, 148b, 133a, 92a, 29 ↓ 103, 107 ↑
Uhlemann et al. 2014 (101)Subjects varied for each exercise stimulus, including healthy men or both men and women; average age range 30.4–56.8 yr1) Single-symptom limited maximal exercise test on cycle ergometer 2) 4 h cycling at 70% ventilatory threshold 3) marathon 4) resistance exercise with additional eccentric loadPlasma, sampling times varied across different exercise stimuliAt highest workload and 5 min after maximal cycling test: 126 ↑A priori, 2 ci-miRNAs
30 min and at each hour during 4-h cycling: 126 ↑
Immed after marathon: 126, 133 ↑
Immed. after resistance exercise: 133 ↑
Zhou et al. 2014 (121)Men and women with metabolic syndrome (n = 209) age 62.5 ± 7.1None; subjects grouped into quartiles by habitual physical activity (metabolic equivalent hours per week)Serum, at restHighest activity vs. lowest activity quartiles: 126, 130a ↓A priori, 55 physical activity related miRNAs
Cui et al. 2015 (21)Healthy, regularly active men (n = 18) age 20.2 ± 1Two Wingate tests separated by 4 min active recoveryPlasma, immed. after exercise1, 133a, 133b, 122, 16 ↓A priori, 7 ci-miRNAs
de Gonzalo-Calvo et al. 2015 (25)Healthy, trained, male runners (n = 9) age 39.1 ± 2.21) 10-Km race 2) marathonSerum, before, immed after, and 24 h after each runImmed after 10 km run: 150 ↑106 ci-miRNAs involved in inflammatory processes and four muscle-specific ci-miRNAs
Immed after marathon: let-7d-3p, let-7f-2–3p, 125b-5p, 132–3p, 143–3p, 148a-3p, 223–3p, 223–5p, 29a-3p, 34a-5p, 424–3p, 424–5p ↑
Guescini et al. 2015 (40)Healthy male students (n = 7) age 26 ± 4.8 yr40-Min treadmill running at 80% V̇o2maxExtracellular vesicles isolated from plasma, 1 h after exercise181–5p ↑A priori, 10 ci-miRNAs
Parrizas et al. 2015 (81)Prediabetic (n = 6) (age 57.3 ± 3.2) and healthy control (n = 12) men and women (age 53.8 ± 3.4 yr)16-Wk monitored aerobic and resistance exercise 2 times/wk and diet recommendationsPlasma, after interventionPrediabetic group: 192, 193b ↓A priori, 2 ci-miRNAs
da Silva Jr. et al. 2015 (24)Male patients with history of intermittent claudication (n = 10) age 62 ± 2 yrMaximal exercise test (treadmill walking at 2 mph, 0% grade increased by 2% every 2 min) following antioxidant or placebo ingestionWhole blood, 30 min after exercisePlacebo group only: 126 ↑A priori, 1 ci-miRNA
Van Craenenbroeck et al. 2015 (103)Ambulatory patients with CKD (n = 32, age 49.6 ± 15.3) and healthy controls (n = 12, 43.4 ± 4.7 yr)1) Maximal symptom limited exercise test on cycle ergometer both before and after training 2) 12 wk of home-based cycling 4 times/day for 10 min each (patients with CKD only)Plasma, 1) 10 min after acute exercise (both at baseline and after training) 2) at rest following 12 wk trainingAll subjects after exercise at baseline: 150 ↑A priori, 12 ci-miRNAs
Patients with CKD only after exercise at baseline: 146 ↓
After acute exercise, following training: 210 ↓
Wardle et al. 2015 (109)Male strength (n = 10) and endurance (n = 10) competitive athletes, and nonexercising controls (n = 10) average age 22.2–24.0 yrNone; subjects compared based on training typePlasma, at restEndurance compared with strength athletes: 222, 21, 146a, 221 ↑A priori, 14 ci-miRNAs
Clauss et al. 2016 (20)“Elite” (n = 15, age 40.0 ± 1.7 yr) and “nonelite” (n = 15, age 40.1 ± 1.4 yr) healthy, male, Munich Marathon runners1) 10-wk endurance training program: elite group ran 73.9 ± 3.9 km/wk; nonelite group ran 33.9 ± 2.7 km/wk 2) marathon runPlasma, baseline (V1) After 10 wk training (V2) Immed after marathon (V3) 24 h after marathon (V4)All runners V3 vs. V2: 1, 133a, 30a ↑A priori, 5 ci-miRNAs associated with atrial remodeling
Elite runners only V4 vs. V3: 26a ↓
Cui et al. 2016 (22)Healthy, endurance-trained men (n = 26); age 20.4 ± 0.1 yr1) HIIE; 2) VICEPlasma, immed after each exercise sessionImmed after both HIIE and VICE: 1, 133a, 133b, 206, 485–5p, 509–5p, 517a, 518f, 520f, 522, 553, 888 ↑Global screening of ci-miRNAs (449 identified as candidates); 12 selected for further validation
Denham and Prestes 2016 (26)Healthy, endurance-trained (n = 67, age 33.9 ± 10.8) and inactive (n = 61, age 28.7 ± 10.6) men and women1) Endurance-trained v. Inactive at rest 2) maximal treadmill testWhole blood, 1) at rest 2) immed after exerciseEndurance-trained compared with inactive: 1, 486, 494 ↑ Immed after exercise in Inactive: 1, 133a, 486 ↓A priori, 5 skeletal/heart muscle-enriched ci-miRNAs
Hecksteden et al. 2016 (44)Trained cyclists (n = 15) and strength athletes (n = 14)6-Day fatiguing training programPlasma and whole blood, after trainingDifferences suggested for all comparisons (not validated by qRT-PCR)Screening of 1,205 c-miRNAs
Kilian et al. 2016 (53)Healthy, trained, competitive male cyclists (n = 12) age 14.4 ± 0.8 yr1) HIIT 2) HVTCapillary blood, during exercise at 20, 30, and 60 min; immed, 30, 60, and 180 min after30 min after HVT: 16 ↑A priori, 3 ci-miRNAs
30 min after HIIT: 21 ↓
20 min into and 60 min after HVT: 126 ↑
Margolis et al. 2016 (65)Healthy, inactive, young (n = 9) and old (n = 9) age 22 ± 1 and 74 ± 2 yrBilateral leg extension and leg press, 3 sets of 10 reps at 80% 1 RMSerum - immed. and 6 h afterSix hours after exercise in young: 17–5p, 19a-3p, 19b-3p, 20a-5p, 26b-5p, 93–5p, 106–5p, 143–3p, 195–5p ↑90 miRNAs (an array of 84 plus 6 skeletal muscle-enriched chosen a priori)
Min et al. 2016 (70)Healthy (except for hypercholesterolemia) male and female Boston Marathon runners taking (n = 28, age 53.0 ± 6.5 yr) or not taking (n = 28, 56.6 ± 8.2 yr) statinsMarathon runPlasma, immed and 24 h afterAll immed. after: 134, 133a, 1, 206 ↑A priori, 4 muscle specific and 1 brain-enriched ci-miRNA
Statin users only 24 h after: 499–5p ↑
Parr et al. 2016 (80)Low (n = 18, age 46.3 ± 5.7 yr) and high (n = 22, age 48.2 ± 6.2 yr) responding men and women to a weight loss intervention16-Wk diet and resistance exercise training (3 times/wk) interventionPlasma, after interventionBoth groups: 221–3p, 223–3p ↑A priori, 13 ci-miRNAs
Xu et al. 2016 (116)Male patients with heart failure (n = 28, age 59.1 ± 1.8 yr)Maximal symptom limited exercise test on cycle ergometerSerum, immed after21, 378, 940 ↑A priori, 18 ci-miRNAs (9 skeletal/heart muscle-related)

Ci-miRNA responses are compared with resting/baseline values unless otherwise stated. CKD, chronic kidney disease; DM, diabetes mellitus; HIIE, high-intensity interval exercise; HVT, high-volume continuous exercise; IFG, impaired fasting glucose; IGT, impaired glucose tolerance; immed, immediately; VICE, vigorous intensity continuous exercise.