Journal of Applied Physiology

Timed-daily Ingestion of Whey Protein and Exercise Training Reduces Visceral Adipose Tissue Mass and Improves Insulin Resistance: The PRISE Study

Paul J. Arciero, Daniel Baur, Scott Connelly, Michael J. Ormsbee


The present study examined the effects of timed-ingestion of supplemental protein (20g servings of whey protein, 3X/day) added to the habitual diet of free-living overweight/obese adults and subsequently randomized to either whey protein only (P, n=24), whey protein and resistance exercise (P+RT, n=27), or a whey protein and multi-mode exercise training program (PRISE, n=28). Total and regional body composition and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) mass (iDXA), insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IR), plasma lipids and adipokines, and feelings of hunger and satiety (VAS) were measured before and after the 16 week intervention. All groups lost body weight, fat mass and abdominal fat, however PRISE lost significantly more body weight (2.6% vs. P+RT, P<0.01) and fat mass (6.6% vs. P+RT, P<0.01; 5.2% vs. P, P=0.59) and gained a greater percentage of lean body mass (2%, P<0.05) compared to other groups. Only P+RT (7.7%) and PRISE (20%) lost VAT mass (P<0.05). Fasting glucose decreased only in P+RT (4.7%) and PRISE (14%) with greatest decline occurring in PRISE (P<0.05). Similarly, HOMA-IR improved (24%, 27%) and leptin decreased (13%, 28%) and adiponectin increased (18%, 23%) only in P+RT and PRISE, respectively, with no change in P. In conclusion, we find evidence to support exercise training and timed-ingestion of whey protein added to the habitual diet of free-living overweight/obese adults, independent of caloric restriction, on total and regional body fat distribution, insulin resistance, and adipokines.

  • visceral adipose tissue
  • whey protein
  • exercise
  • adipokines
  • insulin resistance