Journal of Applied Physiology

Differential Skeletal Muscle Proteome of High and Low Active mice.

David P. Ferguson, Lawrence J. Dangott, Emily E. Schmitt, Heather L. Vellers, J. Timothy Lightfoot


Physical inactivity contributes to cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, obesity and some types of cancer. While the literature is clear that there is genetic regulation of physical activity with existing gene knockout data suggesting that skeletal muscle mechanisms contribute to the regulation of activity, actual differences in end-protein expression between high- and low-active mice have not been investigated. This study used two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry to evaluate the proteomic differences between high active (C57L/J) and low active (C3H/HeJ) mice in the soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL). Furthermore, Vivo-morpholinos were used to transiently knockdown candidate proteins to confirm their involvement in physical activity regulation. Proteins with higher expression patterns generally fell into the calcium-regulating and Krebs (TCA) cycle pathways in the high-active mice (e.g. Annexin A6 p=0.0031; Calsequestrin 1 p=0.000025), while the over expressed proteins in the low-active mice generally fell into cytoskeletal structure and electron transport chain related pathways (e.g. ATPase, p=0.031; NADH dehydrogenase, p=0.027). Transient knockdown of Annexin A6 and Calsequestrin 1 protein of high active mice with Vivo-morpholinos resulted in decreased physical activity levels (p=0.001). These data suggest that high- and low-active mice have unique protein expression patterns and that each pattern contributes to the peripheral capability to be either high- or low-active, suggesting that different specific mechanisms regulate activity leading to the high- or low-activity status of the animal.

  • Mouse wheel running
  • Annexin A6
  • Calsequestrin 1
  • 2D-DIGE
  • Vivo-morpholinos